Bénard-Marangoni convection instability occurs as horizontal layer of silicone oil with aluminum flakes is heated from the bottom with a free surface on top. Variations in temperature cause surface tension gradients that drive the flow.

Bénard-Marangoni convection instability occurs as horizontal layer of silicone oil with aluminum flakes is heated from the bottom with a free surface on top. Variations in temperature cause surface tension gradients that drive the flow.

By Vigneshwaran Selvaraju, Amanda Kennedy, Athena Ross, Melissa Blackstun for Spring 2014 Team First.
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Dyed water was injected into Dawn dish soap to make the Saffman-Taylor fingering instability in a Hele-Shaw cell, and then the top plate was raised and lowered to add air bubbles.
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Aluminum flakes in a pool of silicone oil heated from below displays the Bénard-Marangoni convection instability. Here is a time lapse taken over the period of two minutes.

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